Little by little, one travels far.
— J. R. R. Tolkien, 1892 - 1973




Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.


For other places with the same name, see Turkey (disambiguation).

Turkey (Türkiye) is on the Mediterranean, in the Anatolian region of West Asia, with a small section in Southeastern Europe separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). With the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, Turkey is surrounded by Bulgaria and Greece to the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the northeast, Syria, Iraq and Iran to the southeast.

Read more about Turkey in our Turkey travel guide »

Featured journals from


Merhaba Turkey

by ashfsk

My experience in Turkey

Dec 2013  »  Turkey

Holidays to Marmaris, turkey

by holidayclick

Cheap holidays to Marmaris

Jul 2010 - Sep 2010  »  Turkey | United States

Spin the globe....summer 2018

by madjeanne

Temperature hit 100, gotta go!

May 2018 - Jul 2018  »  United States | Italy | Croatia | Montenegro | Greece | Turkey | Malta | Spain | France | Monaco


by zohar

Kackar, Turkey

Sep 2008  »  Turkey

Featured hotels in


TurkeyPorto Bello Hotel Resort & Spa 

Akdeniz Bulvari 6 Sk Konyalti
Antalya 07070

Price (US$): $177 - $355 / night

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Location. Porto Bello Hotel Resort & Spa is located on the beach in Antalya, close to Antalya Trade Port, Minicity, and Dolphin Park. Migros Shopping Center is also a point of interest near this luxury hotel. Hotel Features. In addition to 4 restaurants, Porto Bello Hotel Resort & Spa offers a coffee shop/cafĂ© and a grocery/convenience store. A beach bar and a poolside bar are open for drinks. Room service is available 24 hours a day. The hotel serves a complimentary breakfast. Recreational… more »

TurkeyKusadasi Golf & Spa Resort 

Kiranta mevkii. Kemal Pasa Mah.
Soke 09200

Price (US$): $100 - $264 / night

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Location. Kusadasi Golf & Spa Resort is a family friendly Soke hotel in a regional park and attractions in the region include Kadinlar Denizi, Kusadasi Beach, and House of the Virgin Mary. Other regional attractions include Tusan Beach. Hotel Features. Kusadasi Golf & Spa Resort features a restaurant and a bar/lounge. Recreational amenities include a golf course. Also located on site are a children's pool, a health club, a sauna, and a children's club. Spa amenities include spa services and… more »

TurkeyHotel Celik Palas Convention Center & Thermal Spa 

Cekirge Cad No 79
Bursa 16070

Price (US$): $140 - $605 / night

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Location. Hotel Celik Palas Convention Center & Thermal Spa is located in Bursa, close to Muradiye Complex, Bursa Ataturk Stadium, and Great Mosque. Nearby points of interest also include Green Mosque and Bayezid I Mosque. Hotel Features. Hotel Celik Palas Convention Center & Thermal Spa features a restaurant and a bar/lounge. Room service is available 24 hours a day. The hotel serves a complimentary buffet breakfast. Recreational amenities include an outdoor pool, an indoor pool, a sauna, a… more »

TurkeyMacakizi Hotel 

Kesireburnu Mevkii Narcicegi Sk
Golturkbuku 48400

Price (US$): $554 - $928 / night

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Location. Located in Golturkbuku, Macakizi Hotel is near the bay and close to Golkoy Beach and Gundogan Beach. Additional area points of interest include Yalikavak Beach and Torba Beach. Hotel Features. Macakizi Hotel's restaurant serves lunch and dinner. A beach bar, a poolside bar, and a bar/lounge are open for drinks. Room service is available during limited hours. The hotel serves a complimentary hot and cold buffet breakfast. Recreational amenities include an outdoor pool, a children's… more »

TurkeyAlba Royal Hotel 

Tilkiler Mevkii Erhan Demir Bulvari
P. Kutusu: 6
Colakli 07330

Price (US$): $279 - $304 / night

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Location. Alba Royal Hotel is a business friendly Colakli resort in the historical district and attractions in the region include Manavgat Falls, Aspendos Theatre, and Aspendos Basilica. Property Features. This resort is all inclusive. Rates include meals and beverages at onsite dining establishments. Charges may be applied for dining at some restaurants, special dinners and dishes, some beverages, and other amenities. Dining options at Alba Royal Hotel include 5 restaurants. Room service is… more »

Browse more hotels in Turkey »


Full name
Republic of Turkey

Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 35 00 E

Area comparative

slightly larger than Texas

Border countries

Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km


7,200 km


temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior


high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Lowest point

Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Highest point

Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower


77,804,122 (July 2010 est.)

Ethnic groups

Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)


Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)


Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

Government type

republican parliamentary democracy


29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday

Republic Day, 29 October (1923)

Chief of state

President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)

Head of government

Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March)

Internet country code


Internet users

27.233 million (2009)


99 (2010)

Ports and terminals

Aliaga, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mercin Limani, Yarimca

Other countries in the region