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Chad

Background

Chad

Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.

About

Chad (French: Tchad) is a country in the Sahel, south of Libya, east of Niger and Cameroon, north of the Central African Republic, and west of Sudan. It shares a short border with Nigeria.

Read more about Chad in our Chad travel guide »

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Chad

Full name
Republic of Chad
Capital
N'Djamena
Location

Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 19 00 E

Area comparative

slightly more than three times the size of California

Border countries

Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Climate

tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain

broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Lowest point

Djourab 160 m

Highest point

Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources

petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Population

10,543,464 (July 2010 est.)

Ethnic groups

Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)

Religions

Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)

Languages

French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Government type

republic

Independence

11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Chief of state

President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)

Head of government

Prime Minister Emmanuel NADINGAR (since 5 March 2010)

Internet country code

.td

Internet users

168,100 (2009)

Airports

56 (2010)

Other countries in the region