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Saudi Arabia

Background

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman Al SAUD (Ibn Saud) after a 30-year campaign to unify most of the Arabian Peninsula. A male descendent of Ibn Saud, his son ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz, rules the country today as required by the country's 1992 Basic Law. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003. Major terrorist attacks in May and November 2003 spurred a strong on-going campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism. King ABDALLAH has continued the cautious reform program begun when he was crown prince. To promote increased political participation, the government held elections nationwide from February through April 2005 for half the members of 179 municipal councils. In December 2005, King ABDALLAH completed the process by appointing the remaining members of the advisory municipal councils. The king instituted an Inter-Faith Dialogue initiative in 2008 to encourage religious tolerance on a global level; in February 2009, he reshuffled the cabinet, which led to more moderates holding ministerial and judicial positions, and appointed the first female to the cabinet. The country remains a leading producer of oil and natural gas and holds more than 20% of the world's proven oil reserves. The government continues to pursue economic reform and diversification, particularly since Saudi Arabia's accession to the WTO in December 2005, and promotes foreign investment in the kingdom. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all ongoing governmental concerns.

About

Saudi Arabia is a Middle Eastern country that occupies most of the Arabian peninsula and has both Persian Gulf and Red Sea coast lines. Its surrounding countries are Jordan to the northwest, Iraq to the northeast, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar to the east, United Arab Emirates to the south east, Oman and Yemen to the south.

Saudi Arabia contains the holy Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina, to which all physically and financially able Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage at least once if possible (see Hajj).

Read more about Saudi Arabia in our Saudi Arabia travel guide »

A travel warning has been issued for Saudi Arabia

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Featured journals from

Saudi Arabia

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Featured hotels in

Saudi Arabia

Saudi ArabiaCrowne Plaza Jeddah 

Al Corniche- Al Ma'adi Road
Jeddah 21443
Saudi Arabia

Price (US$): $293 - $733 / night

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Location. Crowne Plaza Jeddah is a business friendly hotel located in central Jeddah, close to King Fahd's Fountain, Qishla of Jeddah, and Souk Al Alawi. Additional points of interest include Nasseef House. Hotel Features. In addition to 4 restaurants, Crowne Plaza Jeddah offers a coffee shop/café and a grocery/convenience store. Room service is available 24 hours a day. Recreational amenities include an outdoor pool, a health club, and a sauna. This 5 star property has a 24 hour business… more »

Saudi ArabiaQasr Al Sharq, A Waldorf Astoria Hotel 

North Corniche Road
Jeddah 21462
Saudi Arabia

Price (US$): $528 - $1026 / night

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Location. Qasr Al Sharq, A Waldorf Astoria Hotel is a business friendly Jeddah hotel near the bay and close to Floating Mosque and Red Sea Mall. Regional points of interest also include King Fahd's Fountain. Hotel Features. Dining options at Qasr Al Sharq, A Waldorf Astoria Hotel include 2 restaurants. Room service is available 24 hours a day. Recreational amenities include an indoor pool, a health club, a spa tub, a sauna, and a steam room. Spa amenities include massage/treatment rooms,… more »

Saudi ArabiaRamada Continental Jeddah 

Palestine St
Jeddah 21472
Saudi Arabia

Price (US$): $179 - $275 / night

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Location. Ramada Continental Jeddah is located in Jeddah, close to King Fahd's Fountain and Qishla of Jeddah. Additional area points of interest include Souk Al Alawi and Makkah Gate. Hotel Features. Recreational amenities include an outdoor pool, a spa tub, a fitness facility, and a steam room. This 5 star property has a business center and offers secretarial services. Complimentary wireless Internet access is available in public areas. Room service is available 24 hours a day. Additional… more »

Saudi ArabiaAl Ahsa InterContinental 

Al Malik Khalid Street, Al Hofuf
P.O.box 5399
Al Ahsa 31982
Saudi Arabia

Price (US$): $266 - $1200 / night

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Location. Al Ahsa InterContinental is a business friendly hotel located in downtown Al Ahsa. Hotel Features. Dining options at Al Ahsa InterContinental include a restaurant, a coffee shop/café, and a snack bar/deli. A bar/lounge is open for drinks. Room service is available 24 hours a day. The hotel serves buffet breakfasts each morning in the restaurant (surcharges apply). Recreational amenities include an indoor pool, a health club, a spa tub, a sauna, and a steam room. The property's… more »

Saudi ArabiaHoliday Inn Resort Half Moon Bay 

Azizia Area
Al Khobar 39246
Saudi Arabia

Price (US$): $160 - $161 / night

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Location. Holiday Inn Resort Half Moon Bay is located in Al Khobar and attractions in the region include King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and Al Rashed Mall. Resort Features. Recreational amenities include an outdoor pool and a fitness facility. This 5 star property has a business center. Additional property amenities include barbecue grills, gift shops/newsstands, and laundry facilities. Guestrooms. Air conditioned guestrooms at Holiday Inn Resort Half Moon Bay feature hair… more »

Browse more hotels in Saudi Arabia »

Saudi Arabia

Full name
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital
Riyadh
Location

Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates

25 00 N, 45 00 E

Area comparative

slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Border countries

Iraq 814 km, Jordan 744 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline

2,640 km

Climate

harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes

Terrain

mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Lowest point

Persian Gulf 0 m

Highest point

Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Population

25,731,776

Ethnic groups

Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Religions

Muslim 100%

Languages

Arabic (official)

Government type

monarchy

Independence

23 September 1932 (unification of the kingdom)

National holiday

Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Chief of state

King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SULTAN bin Abd al- Aziz Al Saud (half brother of the monarch); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Head of government

King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005); Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud; Second Deputy Prime Minister NAYIF bin Abd Al-Aziz Al Saud

Internet country code

.sa

Internet users

9.774 million (2009)

Airports

217 (2010)

Ports and terminals

Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Jiddah, Yanbu' al Sinaiyah

Other countries in the region