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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Troop strength at the end of 2009 stood at roughly 2,000. In January 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2010-11 term.

About

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina or Босна и Херцеговина) is a European country located on the Balkan peninsula. It was formerly part of Yugoslavia but gained independence in 1992. It borders Croatia to the north, west and southwest, Serbia to the east and Montenegro to the southeast. Mostly mountainous, it has access to a tiny portion of the Adriatic Sea coastline in the south.

Read more about Bosnia and Herzegovina in our Bosnia and Herzegovina travel guide »

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Featured hotels in

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and HerzegovinaHotel Park Doboj 

Kneza Lazara 2
Doboj 74000
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Price (US$): $97 - $311 / night

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Location. Hotel Park Doboj is located in the midtown area of Doboj. Hotel Features. Hotel Park Doboj features a restaurant. Room service is available. Recreational amenities include an indoor pool, a sauna, and a steam room. Spa amenities include facials and body treatments. Complimentary wireless Internet access is available in public areas. This Doboj property has 42 square meters of event space consisting of conference/meeting rooms and small meeting rooms. Wedding services and… more »

Bosnia and HerzegovinaHotel BM International 

Dzemala Bijedica 212
Sarajevo 71000
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Price (US$): $71 - $88 / night

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Location. Located in central Sarajevo, Hotel BM International is within walking distance of Eternal Flame and Ali Pasha's Mosque. Nearby points of interest also include Serb Orthodox Cathedral and Cathedral of Jesus' Heart. Hotel Features. Dining options at Hotel BM International include a restaurant and a coffee shop/café. A bar/lounge is open for drinks. Recreational amenities include a sauna and a fitness facility. This 3.5 star property has a business center and offers small meeting… more »

Bosnia and HerzegovinaMedjugorje Hotel & Spa 

Bijakovici bb
Medjugorje 88266
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Price (US$): $105 - $169 / night

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Location. Medjugorje Hotel & Spa is located in Medjugorje, close to St James Church and Medjugorje Shrine. Additional area points of interest include Kravice Waterfall. Hotel Features. Medjugorje Hotel & Spa features a restaurant and a bar/lounge. Recreational amenities include a fitness facility. There is a full service health spa on site. This 3.5 star property offers a technology helpdesk and business services. Complimentary wireless Internet access is available in public areas and the… more »

Bosnia and HerzegovinaHotel Exclusive 

Zabrde 5b
Sarajevo 71000
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Price (US$): $94 - $126 / night

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Location. Located in Sarajevo, Hotel Exclusive is in a shopping district with local attractions including Bosmal City Centar, National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Ali Pasha's Mosque. Additional area points of interest include Eternal Flame and Serb Orthodox Cathedral. Hotel Features. Hotel Exclusive's restaurant serves breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The hotel also has a snack bar/deli and a coffee shop/café. The hotel serves a complimentary hot and cold buffet breakfast.… more »

Bosnia and HerzegovinaHotel Bristol 

Fra Filipa Lastrica 2
Sarajevo 71000
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Price (US$): $141 - $235 / night

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Location. Hotel Bristol is a business friendly hotel located in central Sarajevo, close to Grbavica Stadium, National Library, and National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Additional points of interest include Ali Pasha's Mosque and Eternal Flame. Hotel Features. Dining options at Hotel Bristol include 2 restaurants. Room service is available during limited hours. Recreational amenities include an indoor pool, a health club, and a sauna. This 4 star property has a business center and… more »

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Capital
Sarajevo
Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

44 00 N, 18 00 E

Area comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Border countries

Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 249 km, Serbia 357 km

Coastline

20 km

Climate

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain

mountains and valleys

Lowest point

Adriatic Sea 0 m

Highest point

Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

Population

4,621,598 (July 2010 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)

Religions

Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages

Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian

Government type

emerging federal democratic republic

Independence

1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992)

National holiday

National Day, 25 November (1943)

Chief of state

Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (chairman of the presidency since 10 November 2010; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotate every eight months Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 3 October 2010 - Bosniak); Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Croat)

Head of government

Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 January 2007)

Internet country code

.ba

Internet users

1.422 million (2009)

Airports

25 (2010)

Ports and terminals

Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava River), Orasje

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